CareWorks Health Services
Moulton Parkway STE 103C
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
is a sudden interruption of blood flow to an organ or body
part due to an embolus
adhering to the wall of an artery
blocking the flow of blood,
the major type of embolus being a blood clot (thromboembolism).
embolism is classified as arterial embolism as well,
in the sense that the clot follows the pulmonary
artery carrying deoxygenated blood away from the heart.
However, pulmonary embolism is generally classified as a
form of venous embolism, because the embolus forms in veins.
Arterial embolism is the major cause of infarction
(which may also be caused by e.g. arterial compression,
rupture or pathological vasoconstriction).
may begin quickly or slowly depending on the size of the
embolus and how much it blocks the blood flow.
Symptoms of embolisation in an organ vary with the organ
involved but commonly include:
in the involved body part
decreased organ function
symptoms are closely related to infarction
of the affected tissue. This may cause permanently decreased
example, symptoms of myocardial
infarction mainly include chest
(an excessive form of sweating),
infarction include coldness,
decreased or no pulse beyond the site of blockage,
numbness and tingling,
possibly to the grade of paralysis
in the affected limb.
emboli often occur in the legs and feet. Some may occur
in the brain, causing a stroke, or in the heart, causing
a heart attack. Less common sites include the kidneys, intestines,
factors for thromboembolism,
the major cause of arterial embolism, include disturbed
blood flow (such as in atrial
fibrillation and mitral
stenosis), injury or damage to an artery wall, and hypercoagulability
(such as increased platelet count).
stenosis poses a high risk of forming emboli which may
travel to the brain and cause stroke.
increases the risk for thromboembolism,
by a mixture of the factors above.
in the aorta and other large blood vessels is a common risk
both for thromboembolism and cholesterol
embolism. The legs and feet are major impact sites for
Thus, risk factors for atherosclerosis are risk factors
for arterial embolisation as well:
important risk factors for arterial embolism include:
(both for thromboembolism and air embolism)
stroke or cardiovascular disease
history of long-term intravenous therapy
fracture (for fat
defect of the heart makes it possible for paradoxical
embolization, which happens when a clot in a vein enters
the right side of the heart and passes through a hole into
the left side. The clot can then move to an artery and cause
arterial embolism is caused by one or more emboli getting
stuck in an artery and blocking blood flow, causing ischemia,
possibly resulting in infarction
with tissue death (necrosis).
Individuals with arterial thrombosis or embolism often develop
circulation to compensate for the loss of arterial flow.
However, it takes time for sufficient collateral circulation
making affected areas more vulnerable for sudden occlusion
by embolisation than for e.g. gradual occlusion as in atherosclerosis.
embolisms can be consist of various materials, including:
fluid embolism almost exclusively affects the venous
addition to evaluating the symptoms above, the health care
provider may find decreased or no blood
pressure in the arm or leg.
to determine any underlying cause for thrombosis or embolism
and to confirm presence of the obstruction may include:
which is a major risk factor of arterial embolism, can be
performed e.g. by dieting,
exercise and smoking
case of high risk for developing thromboembolism, antithrombotic
medication such as warfarin
may be taken prophylactically. Antiplatelet
drugs may also be needed.
is aimed at controlling symptoms and improving the interrupted
blood flow to the affected area of the body.
drug treatments successfully produces thrombolysis and removal
of the clot in 50% to 80% of all cases.
agents may be administered directly onto the clot in the
vessel using a flexible catheter (intra-arterial thrombolysis).
Intra-arterial thrombolysis reduces thromboembolic occlusion
by 95% in 50% of cases, and restores adequate blood flow
in 50% to 80% of cases.
surgery to create another source of blood supply
to remove the embolus, with various techniques available:
catheterization with or without implanting a
Balloon catheterization or open embolectomy surgery
reduces mortality by nearly 50%
and the need for limb amputation by approximately
by open surgery on the artery
extensive necrosis and gangrene has set in an arm or leg,
the limb may have to be amputated.
Limb amputation is in itself usually remarkably well tolerated,
but is associated with a substantial mortality (~50%), primarily
because of the severity of the diseases in patients where
it is indicated.
well a patient does depends on the location of the clot
and to what extent the clot has blocked blood flow. Arterial
embolism can be serious if not treated promptly.
treatment, it has a 25% to 30% mortality
The affected area can be permanently damaged, and up to
of cases require amputation of an affected extremity.
emboli may recur even after successful treatment.
complications of arterial embolism depend on the site of
the heart it can cause myocardial
the brain, it can cause a transient
ischemic attack (TIA),
and, in prolonged blood obstruction, stroke.
of arteries that supply arms or legs may result in necrosis
or permanent decrease or loss of other organ functions
embolism, there can be infection of the affected
tissue or even septic shock,
States, approximately 550,000 people die each year from
heart-related arterial embolism and thrombosis.
Approximately 250,000 of these individuals are female,
and approximately 100,000 of all these deaths are considered
premature, that is, prior to the age of average life expectancy.
Viejo 92656, 92698,
Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809,
92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899,
Brea, 92821, 92822,92823,
Buena Park, 90620 ,90621,90622, 90624, Capistrano Beach, 92624,
Corona del Mar, 92625,
Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628,
Dana Point, 92629,
East Irvine, 92650,
El Toro, 92609,
Foothill Ranch, 92610,
Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728,
Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838,
Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843 ,92844, 92845, 92846,
Huntington Beach , 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649,
Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92617, 92618,
92619, 92620, 92623, 92697,
La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633,
La Palma, 90623,
Ladera Ranch, 92694,
Laguna Beach , 92651, 92652,
Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677,
Laguna Woods, 92637,
Lake Forest, 92630,
Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721,
Midway City, 92655,
Mission Viejo, 92690, 92691, 92692,
Newport Beach , 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, 92657,
Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867,
92868, 92869, Placentia, 92870, 92871,
Rancho Santa Margarita 92688,
San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674,
San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92693,
Santa Ana , 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705 ,92706, 92707, 92711,
92712, 92725.92735, 92799,
Seal Beach , 90740,
Sunset Beach 90742,
Trabuco Canyon, 92678, 92679,
Tustin ,92780, 92781,92782,
Villa Park, 92861,
Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685,
Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887