CareWorks Health Services
Moulton Parkway STE 103C
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
( CVDs )
(also called heart disease) is a class of diseases
that involve the heart,
and veins) or both.
disease refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular
system, principally cardiac disease, vascular diseases
of the brain and kidney,
The causes of cardiovascular disease are diverse but atherosclerosis
are the most common. In addition, with aging come a number
and morphological changes that alter cardiovascular function
and lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even
in healthy asymptomatic individuals.
disease is the leading cause of deaths worldwide, though,
since the 1970s, cardiovascular mortality rates have declined
in many high-income
At the same time, cardiovascular deaths and disease have
increased at a fast rate in low- and middle-income countries.
Although cardiovascular disease usually affects older adults,
the antecedents of cardiovascular disease, notably atherosclerosis,
begin in early life, making primary prevention efforts necessary
There is therefore increased emphasis on preventing atherosclerosis
by modifying risk factors, such as healthy
and avoidance of smoking
for inflammatory heart diseases per 100,000 inhabitants
suggests a number of risk factors for heart diseases: age,
gender, high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus,
tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sugar consumption,
family history, obesity,
lack of physical activity, psychosocial factors, and air
While the individual contribution of each risk factor varies
between different communities or ethnic groups the consistency
of the overall contribution of these risk factors to epidemiological
studies is remarkably strong.
Some of these risk factors, such as age, gender or family
history, are immutable; however, many important cardiovascular
risk factors are modifiable by lifestyle change, social
change, drug treatment and prevention of Serrano's Cardiac
Triad: hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes.
heart of an older woman with cardiomegaly.
is by far the most important risk factor in developing cardiovascular
or heart diseases, with approximately a tripling of risk
with each decade of life.
It is estimated that 82 percent of people who die of coronary
heart disease are 65 and older.
At the same time, the risk of stroke doubles every decade
after age 55.
explanations have been proposed to explain why age increases
the risk of cardiovascular/heart diseases. One of them is
related to serum cholesterol level.
In most populations, the serum total cholesterol level increases
as age increases. In men, this increase levels off around
age 45 to 50 years. In women, the increase continues sharply
until age 60 to 65 years.
is also associated with changes in the mechanical and structural
properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss
of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance and
may subsequently lead to coronary artery disease.
are at greater risk of heart disease than pre-menopausal
Once past menopause,
it has been argued that a woman's risk is similar to a man's
although more recent data from the WHO and UN disputes this.
middle-aged people, coronary heart disease is 2 to 5 times
more common in men than in women.
In a study done by the World
Health Organization, sex contributes to approximately
40% of the variation in the sex ratios of coronary heart
Another study reports similar results that gender difference
explains nearly half of the risk associated with cardiovascular
One of the proposed explanations for the gender difference
in cardiovascular disease is hormonal difference.
Among women, estrogen is the predominant sex hormone. Estrogen
may have protective effects through glucose metabolism and
hemostatic system, and it may have a direct effect on improving
The production of estrogen decreases after menopause, and
may change the female lipid metabolism toward a more atherogenic
form by decreasing the HDL
cholesterol level and by increasing LDL and total cholesterol
Women who have experienced early menopause, either naturally
or because they have had a hysterectomy, are twice as likely
to develop heart disease as women of the same age group
who have not yet gone through menopause.[citation
men and women, there are notable differences in body weight,
height, body fat distribution, heart rate, stroke volume,
and arterial compliance.
In the very elderly, age-related large artery pulsatility
and stiffness is more pronounced in women.
This may be caused by the smaller body size and arterial
dimensions independent of menopause.
matter has been studied for its short- and long-term
on cardiovascular disease. Currently, PM2.5
is the major focus, in which gradients are used to determine
CVD risk. For every 10 microg/m3 of PM2.5
long-term exposure, there was an estimated 8-18% CVD mortality
Women had a higher relative risk (RR) (1.42) for PM2.5
induced coronary artery disease than men (0.90) did.
Overall, long-term PM exposure increased rate of atherosclerosis
and inflammation. In regards to short-term exposure (2 hours),
every 25 microg/m3 of PM2.5 resulted
in a 48% increase of CVD mortality risk.
In addition, after only 5 days of exposure, a rise in systolic
(2.8 mmHg) and diastolic (2.7 mmHg) blood pressure occurred
for every 10.5 microg/m3 of PM2.5.
Other research has implicated PM2.5 in irregular
heart rhythm, reduced heart rate variability (decreased
vagal tone), and most notably heart failure.
PM2.5 is also linked to carotid
artery thickening and increased risk of acute myocardial
studies show that atherosclerosis, the major precursor of
cardiovascular disease, begins in childhood. The Pathobiological
Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth Study demonstrated
that intimal lesions appear in all the aortas and more than
half of the right coronary arteries of youths aged 7–9 years.
is extremely important considering that 1 in 3 people will
die from complications attributable to atherosclerosis.
In order to stem the tide, education and awareness that
cardiovascular disease poses the greatest threat, and measures
to prevent or reverse this disease must be taken.
mellitus are often linked to cardiovascular disease,
as are a history of chronic kidney
disease and hypercholesterolaemia.
In fact, cardiovascular disease is the most life-threatening
of the diabetic complications and diabetics are two- to
four-fold more likely to die of cardiovascular-related causes
(either at rest or with exercise) are not recommended in
those without symptoms who are at low risk.
In those at higher risk the evidence for screening with
ECGs is inconclusive.
may add to conventional cardiovascular risk factors in predicting
the risk of future cardiovascular disease; however, the
clinical value of some biomarkers is still questionable.
Currently, biomarkers that may reflect a higher risk of
cardiovascular disease include the following:
practiced measures to prevent cardiovascular disease include:
low-fat, high-fiber diet
including whole grains and plenty of fresh fruit and
vegetables (at least five portions a day)
cessation and avoidance of second-hand smoke
consumption to the recommended daily limits
consumption of 1-2 standard alcoholic drinks per day
may reduce risk by 30%
However excessive alcohol intake increases the risk
of cardiovascular disease.
blood pressures, if elevated
body fat (BMI)
if overweight or obese
daily activity to 30 minutes of vigorous exercise per
day at least five times per week (multiply by three
Stress however plays a relatively minor role in hypertension.
Specific relaxation therapies are not supported by the
adults without a known diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes,
hyperlipidemia, or cardiovascular disease, routine counseling
to advise them to improve their diet and increase their
physical activity has not been found to significantly alter
behavior, and thus is not recommended.
suggests that the Mediterranean
diet may improve cardiovascular outcomes.
This may be by about 30% in those at high risk.
There is also evidence that a Mediterranean diet may be
more effective than a low-fat
diet in bringing about long-term changes to cardiovascular
risk factors (e.g., lower cholesterol
level and blood
The DASH diet
(high in nuts, fish, fruits and vegetables, and low in sweets,
red meat and fat) has been shown to reduce blood pressure,
lower total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol
and improve metabolic
but the long term benefits outside the context of a clinical
trial have been questioned.
fiber diet appears to lower the risk.
fat intake does not appear to be an important risk factor.
A diet high in trans
fatty acids; however, does appear to increase rates
of cardiovascular disease.
Worldwide, dietary guidelines recommend a reduction in saturated
However, there are some questions
around the effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular disease
in the medical literature.
A 2014 review did not find evidence of harm from saturated
A 2012 Cochrane
review found suggestive evidence of a small benefit
from replacing dietary saturated fat by unsaturated fat.
A 2013 meta analysis concludes that substitution with omega
6 linoleic acid (a type of unsaturated fat) may increase
Replacement of saturated fats with carbohydrates
does not change or may increase risk.
Benefits from replacement with polyunsaturated
fat appears greatest
however supplementation with omega-3
fatty acids (a type of polysaturated fat) does not appear
have an effect.
effect of a low-salt
diet is unclear. A Cochrane
review concluded that any benefit in either hypertensive
or normal-tensive people is small if present.
In addition, the review suggested that a low-salt diet may
be harmful in those with congestive heart failure.
However, the review was criticized in particular for not
excluding a trial in heart failure where people had low-salt
and -water levels due to diuretics.
When this study is left out, the rest of the trials show
a trend to benefit.
Another review of dietary salt concluded that there is strong
evidence that high dietary salt intake increases blood pressure
and worsens hypertension, and that it increases the number
of cardiovascular disease events; the latter happen both
through the increased blood pressure and, quite likely,
through other mechanisms.
Moderate evidence was found that high salt intake increases
cardiovascular mortality; and some evidence was found for
an increase in overall mortality, strokes, and left-ventricular
diet is beneficial, in general the effect of antioxidant
C, etc.) or vitamins has not been shown to protection
against cardiovascular disease and in some cases may possibly
result in harm.
Mineral supplements have also not been found to be useful.
Niacin, a type
of vitamin B3, may be an exception with a modest decrease
in the risk of cardiovascular events in those at high risk.
supplementation lowers high blood pressure in a dose dependent
Magnesium therapy is recommended for patients with ventricular
associated with torsade
de pointes who present with long
QT syndrome as well as for the treatment of patients
with digoxin intoxication-induced arrhythmias.
Evidence to support omega-3
fatty acid supplementation is lacking.
has been found to be of benefit overall in those at low
risk of heart disease as the risk of serious bleeding is
equal to the benefit with respect to cardiovascular problems.
are effective in preventing further cardiovascular disease
in people with a history of cardiovascular disease.
As the event rate is higher in men than in women, the decrease
in events is more easily seen in men than women.
In those without cardiovascular disease but risk factors
statins appear to also be beneficial with a decrease in
mortality and further heart disease.
The time course over which statins provide preventation
against death appears to be long, of the order of one year,
which is much longer than the duration of their effect on
disease is treatable with initial treatment primarily focused
on diet and lifestyle interventions.
life year for cardiovascular diseases per 100,000 inhabitants
diseases are the leading cause of death. In 2008, 30% of
all global death is attributed to cardiovascular diseases.
Death caused by cardiovascular diseases are also higher
in low- and middle-income countries as over 80% of all global
death caused by cardiovascular diseases occurred in those
countries. It is also estimated that by 2030, over 23 million
people will die from cardiovascular diseases each year.
first studies on cardiovascular health were performed in
year 1949 by Jerry
Morris using occupational health data and were published
in year 1958.
The causes, prevention, and/or treatment of all forms of
cardiovascular disease remain active fields of biomedical
research, with hundreds of scientific studies being
published on a weekly basis.
fairly recent emphasis is on the link between low-grade
inflammation that hallmarks atherosclerosis and its possible
protein (CRP) is a common inflammatory marker that has
been found to be present in increased levels in patients
who are at risk for cardiovascular disease.
which is involved with regulation of a key inflammatory
transcription factor called NF-kappaB,
has been found to be a risk factor of cardiovascular disease
areas currently being researched include the possible links
pneumoniae (a major cause of pneumonia)
and coronary artery disease. The Chlamydia link has
become less plausible with the absence of improvement after
research also investigated the benefits of melatonin on
cardiovascular diseases prevention and cure. Melatonin is
a pineal gland secretion and it is shown to be able to lower
total cholesterol, very-low-ensity and low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol levels in the blood plasma of rats. Reduction
of blood pressure is also observed when pharmacological
doses are applied. Thus, it is deemed to be a plausible
treatment for hypertension. However, further research needs
to be conducted to investigate the side-effects, optimal
dosage, etc. before it can be licensed for use.
Viejo 92656, 92698,
Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809,
92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899,
Brea, 92821, 92822,92823,
Buena Park, 90620 ,90621,90622, 90624, Capistrano Beach, 92624,
Corona del Mar, 92625,
Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628,
Dana Point, 92629,
East Irvine, 92650,
El Toro, 92609,
Foothill Ranch, 92610,
Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728,
Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838,
Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843 ,92844, 92845, 92846,
Huntington Beach , 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649,
Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92617, 92618,
92619, 92620, 92623, 92697,
La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633,
La Palma, 90623,
Ladera Ranch, 92694,
Laguna Beach , 92651, 92652,
Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677,
Laguna Woods, 92637,
Lake Forest, 92630,
Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721,
Midway City, 92655,
Mission Viejo, 92690, 92691, 92692,
Newport Beach , 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, 92657,
Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867,
92868, 92869, Placentia, 92870, 92871,
Rancho Santa Margarita 92688,
San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674,
San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92693,
Santa Ana , 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705 ,92706, 92707, 92711,
92712, 92725.92735, 92799,
Seal Beach , 90740,
Sunset Beach 90742,
Trabuco Canyon, 92678, 92679,
Tustin ,92780, 92781,92782,
Villa Park, 92861,
Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685,
Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887
Cardiovascular Disease, CVDs, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cardiovascular,
chronic disease, Heart attack, high blood pressure, hypertension,
stroke, world health day 2013, , Cardiovascular disease, Heart attack,
Heart attacks, CVD, Heart diseases, Heart disease, High blood pressure,
Hypertension, Noncommunicable diseases, Noncommunicable disease, Chronic
conditions, Chronic disease, Chronic disease prevention, Cerebrovascular
accident, CVA, Vascular accident, Brain ischaemia
Stroke Recover, Stroke Rehabilitation, Stroke Rehab, Stroke Recovery,
Stroke Rehabilitation Therapy
STROKE RECOVERY CARE ORANGE COUNTY CA,
STROKE REHABILITATION ORANGE COUNTY
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE ORANGE COUNTY, CVDS