CareWorks Health Services
Moulton Parkway STE 103C
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
(SLPs), also called speech and language therapists,
or speech therapists, specialize in the evaluation and
treatment of communication
disorders and swallowing
components of speech
production include: phonation,
producing sound; resonance;
variance of pitch;
components of respiration.
The components of language
manipulating sound according to the rules of a language; morphology,
understanding and using minimal units of meaning; syntax,
constructing sentences by using languages' grammar
interpreting signs or symbols of communication to construct
meaning; and pragmatics,
social aspects of communication.
approaches to speech and language pathology
pathology is known by a variety of names in different countries:
pathology (SLP) in the United States ,
and in the Philippines
and language therapy (SLT) in the United Kingdom, Ireland
and South Africa .
Within the United Kingdom a Speech and Language Therapy
team is sometimes referred to as the "SALT" team, to avoid
confusion with Senior Leadership Team. S< is preferable
however, and closer to the official abbreviation SLT used
by RCSLT (Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists)
and language therapist (logopedist) are educated to
give therapy in the Netherlands and Hungary.
pathology in Australia ,
and the Philippines
therapy in New Zealand
therapy in India ,
Hong Kong and other Asian countries.
and language pathologist in the Netherlands, the title
for graduates from University who can participate in research.
to 2006, the practice of Speech-Language Pathology in the United
States was regulated by the individual states. Since January
2006, the 2005 "Standards and Implementation Procedures for
the Certificate of Clinical Competence in Speech-Language Pathology"
guidelines given by The American
Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) have determined
the qualification requirements to obtain "Speech-Language Pathology
Clinical Fellowship". First, individuals must obtain an undergraduate
degree, which may be in a field related to speech-language-hearing
sciences. Second, individuals must graduate from an accredited
master's program in speech-language pathology. Many graduate
programs will allow coursework absent in undergraduate study
to be completed during graduate work. Some states licensure
regulations differ. The Certificate of Clinical Competence (CCC)
is granted after the clinical fellowship year (CFY), when the
individual provides services under the supervision of an experienced
and licensed SLP. After a CCC in Speech-Language Pathology is
awarded, continuing education is required every three years
to maintain certification.
Post-master's graduate study for a Speech-Language Pathologist
may consist of academic, research, and clinical practice. A
doctoral degree (Ph.D or Speech-Language Pathology Doctorate)
is currently optional for clinicians wishing to serve the public.
Speech-Language Pathology Competencies
practice of speech-language pathology may include the following
competencies (ASHA, 1996b):
screening, identification, assessment, diagnosis, treatment,
intervention, and follow-up services for people with
speech and language disorders Provide consultation and
counseling, and make referrals when appropriate Train
and support family members and other communication partners
of individuals with speech, voice, language, communication,
and swallowing disabilities Develop and establish effective
augmentative and alternative communication techniques
and strategies Select, fit, and establish the effective
use of appropriate prosthetic/adaptive devices for speaking
and swallowing Use instrumental technology to diagnose
and treat disorders of communication and swallowing
Provide aural rehabilitation and related counseling
services to individuals with hearing loss and to their
families Collaborate in the assessment of central auditory
processing disorders in cases inwhich there is evidence
of speech, language, and/or other cognitive-communication
disorders Conduct pure-tone air conduction hearing screening
and screening typmanometry for the purpose of the initial
identification and/or referral of individuals with other
communication disorders or possible middle ear pathology
Enhance speech and language proficiency and communication
effectiveness, including but not limited to accent reduction,
collaboration with teachers of English as a second language,
and improvement of voice, performance, and singing Train
and supervise support personnel Develop and manage academic
and clinical programs in communication sciences and
disorders Conduct, disseminate, and apply research in
communication sciences and disorders Measure outcomes
of treatment and conduct continuous evaluation of the
effectiveness of practices and programs to improve and
maintain quality of services
See more at: http://www.asha.org/Careers/job/slp_comp/#sthash.W5ULr4a0.dpuf
Speech-Language Pathology vocation
Pathologists provide a wide range of services, mainly on an
individual basis, but also as support for individuals, families,
support groups, and providing information for the general public.
Speech services begin with initial screening for communication
and swallowing disorders and continue with assessment and diagnosis,
consultation for the provision of advice regarding management,
intervention and treatment, and provision counseling and other
follow up services for these disorders.
aspects of communication (e.g., attention, memory, problem
solving, executive functions).
fluency, resonance, and voice
including aeromechanical components of respiration);
and pragmatic/social aspects of communication) including
comprehension and expression in oral, written, graphic,
and manual modalities; language
processing; preliteracy and language-based literacy
skills, phonological awareness.
or other upper aerodigestive functions such as infant feeding
and aeromechanical events (evaluation of esophageal function
is for the purpose of referral to medical professionals);
(hoarseness (dysphonia), poor vocal volume (hypophonia),
abnormal (e.g. rough, breathy, strained) vocal quality).
Research demonstrates voice therapy to be especially helpful
with certain patient populations; individuals with Parkinson's
Disease often develop voice issues as a result of their
awareness related to communication, swallowing, or other
upper aerodigestive functions.
Pathologists collaborate with other health care professionals
often working as part of a multidisciplinary team, providing
referrals to audiologists
and others; providing information to health care professionals
behavior analysis) and parents
as dictated by the individual client's needs.
relation to Auditory
collaborating in the assessment and providing intervention where
there is evidence of speech, language, and/or other cognitive-communication
treatment for patients with cleft
lip and palate has an obvious interdisciplinary character.
The speech therapy outcome is even better when the surgical
treatment is performed earlier.
healthy lifestyle practices for the preservation of communication,
hearing, or swallowing, or for the treatment of other upper
the need to provide and appropriately accommodate diagnostic
and treatment services to individuals from diverse cultural
backgrounds and adjust treatment and assessment services
for individuals through community awareness, education,
and training programs to promote and facilitate access to
full participation in communication, including the elimination
of societal barriers.
research related to communication sciences and disorders,
swallowing disorders, or other upper aerodigestive functions.
Pathology is a Master's entry-level field. Clinicians may
hold a Master's degree in Speech-Language Pathology (e.g.
M.A., M.S., or M.Ed), a clinical doctorate in Speech Language
Pathology (e.g. CScD or SLP-D), or a Ph.D.
clinicians are required to complete 400 clinical hours (25
observation hours during the undergraduate degree and 375
hours of graduate Clinical Practicum).
pass multiple Knowledge and Skills Acquisition (KASA) exams
coursework at the undergraduate and graduate level as well
as additional licensure is required if the SLP wishes to
work in a K-12 school setting.
all the above requirements have been met during the SLP’s path
to earning the graduate degree:
score on the National Speech-Language Pathology board exam
completion of a clinical fellowship (CF). The CF is 36 weeks
of full-time (35 hours per week) experience (or the equivalent
part-time experience), totaling a minimum of 1260 hours).
Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA) certificate of clinical
competence (CCC) and full state licensure to practice, following
successful completion of clinical fellowship (CF).
Education and Training Obligations:
supervise, and mentor future Speech-Language Pathologists.
in continuing education.
and provide in-service training to families, caregivers,
and other professionals.
supervise, and manage Speech-Language Pathology Assistants
and other support personnel.
and counseling individuals, families, co-workers, educators,
and other persons in the community regarding acceptance,
adaptation, and decisions about communication and swallowing.
of a clinical fellow typically read as: M.A., CFY-SLP.
of a licensed SLP commonly read as: M.A., CCC-SLP, indicating
a practitioner's graduate degree and successful completion
of the fellowship year/board exams to obtain certification.
by State or District
salaries for speech-language pathologists vary somewhat throughout
the United States, ranging on average between 55-90K depending
on setting and years of experience.
Pathologists work in a variety of clinical and educational settings.
SLPs work in public and private hospitals,
skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), long-term acute care (LTAC)
and home healthcare. SLPs may also work as part of the support
structure in the education system, working in both public and
private schools, colleges,
Some speech-language pathologists also work in community health,
providing services at prisons and young
offenders' institutions or providing expert testimony in
applicable court cases.
to ASHA's 2005 approval of the delivery of Speech-Language Pathology
services via video conference, or telepractice,
SLPs have begun delivering services via this service delivery
of speech, language, cognition, and swallowing can consist of
informal (non-standard or criterion based) assessments, formal
standardized tests, instrumental measures, language sample analyses,
and oral motor mechanism exam. Informal assessments rely on
a clinician's knowledge and experience to evaluate an individual's
abilities across areas of concern. Formal standardized testing
is used to measure an individuals' abilities against peers.
Instrumental measures (e.g., nasometer)utilizes equipment to
measure physiological or anatomical impairments (e.g., Fiberoptic
Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES) or Modified Barium
Swallow Study (MBS)). Oral motor assessments review the strength,
co-ordination, range of movement, symmetry, and speed of cranial
nerves V, VII, IX, X and XII.
to Speech and Language Pathologists should be made if there
are any concerns regarding slow or limited communication development
in children, cognition (limited attention, disorganization etc.
following by a Traumatic Brain Injury), difficulty with word-finding,
errors in speech sound production, or for Augmentative
Alternative Communication needs.
and patients requiring speech and language pathology services
Pathologists work with clients and patients who can present
a wide range of issues.
with injuries due to complications at birth, feeding
difficulties, including dysphagia
with mild, moderate or severe:
children are eligible to receive speech therapy services, including
assessment and lessons through the
public school system. If not, private therapy is readily
available through personal lessons with a qualified Speech-Language
Pathologist or the growing field of telepractice.
Teleconferencing tools such as Skype are being used more commonly
as a means to access remote locations in private therapy practice,
such as in the geographically diverse southern New Zealand.
More at-home or combination treatments have become readily available
to address specific types of articulation disorders. The use
of mobile applications in speech therapy is also growing as
an avenue to bring treatment into the home.
with mild, moderate, or severe eating, feeding and swallowing
difficulties, including dysphagia
with mild, moderate, or severe language difficulties as
a result of:
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